2019 년 이란의 에너지 생산량 감소.
미국과 중국은 2019 년 글로벌 에너지 생산 증가의 주요 원인으로 원유 생산량과 석탄 생산량이 각각 크게 증가했습니다.
2019 년 에너지 생산에 대한 주요 데이터는 다음과 같습니다:
- 원유 : 중동 지역의 생산 감소로 인해 -0.7 % (2000-2018 년 대비 + 1.2 % / 년)
- 가스 : 미국, 러시아 및 호주에 의한 + 4 % (2000-2018 년 대비 + 2.5 % / 년)
- 석탄 : 0 %, 중국의 성장률 (+ 4 %)은 인도, 미국 및 EU의 하락으로 상쇄 (2000-2018 년 대비 + 3 % / 연간)
- 전기 : 중국의 영향으로 + 1 %, 미국 및 일본 감소 (2000-2018 년 대비 + 3.1 % / 연간 감소)
에너지 생산은 러시아와 호주 (신규 LNG 프로젝트 진행 예정), 브라질 (석유 생산 증가), 남아프리카 (석탄 생산 증가) 및 터키 (수력 발전 급증)에서도 증가했습니다.
반대로 유럽에서는 에너지 생산이 계속 감소했습니다 (특히 석유 및 가스 자원이 감소하는 경향이 있는 독일과 폴란드의 석탄 생산과 노르웨이와 네덜란드의 원유 생산에 영향). 중동에서 미국의 제재 조치로 이란의 에너지 생산이 거의 15 % 감소한 반면 사우디 아라비아는 OPEC + 협정에 따라 원유 생산을 줄였습니다.
According to the National Energy Administration (NEA), China added nearly 72 GW of wind power capacity and 48 GW of solar capacity in 2020. The growth in wind capacity additions accelerated in 2020 - from 26 GW added in 2019 - and exceeded 2019 global wind capacity additions by 12 GW. Part of this increase was linked to an earlier announcement of China ending subsidies for new onshore wind projects as of 2021. As well, solar capacity additions recovered after two years of slowdown (+44 GW in 2018 and +30 GW in 2019). Hydropower capacity increased by 13 GW in 2020. At the end of 2020, China had 282 GW of wind capacity and 253 GW of solar capacity. The country intends to increase its installed wind and solar capacity to 1,200 GW in 2030.
According to the Ministry of Energy of Indonesia, gasoline imports are expected to increase by 54% to 140 mbl, up from 91 mbl in 2020 and exceeding the pre-pandemic import level of 119 mbl in 2019. In addition, Indonesia’s gasoline sales should reach 233 mbl in 2021 (+32% compared to the 176 mbl level of 2020), while domestic gasoline production should increase by 9% from 86 mbl in 2020 to 94 mbl in 2021, close to its 2019 levels.
Indonesia is the largest importer of gasoline in Asia, and the fourth largest worldwide after the United States, Mexico and Nigeria (2019).
According to the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, China's coal production increased by 0.9% in 2020 to over 3.8 Gt and coal imports grew by 1.5% to 304 Mt. Crude oil production slightly increased in 2020 (+1.6%), and 670 Mt of crude oil were processed (+3%). China's gas production rose by 9.8% and gas imports increased by 5.3%. Power generation grew by 2.7% in 2020.
According to the Algerian Ministry of Energy, Algeria’s oil and gas exports decreased by 11% in 2020 (in volumes) and only raised US$20bn, i.e. 40% less compared to 2019. Indeed, the average price of oil fell to US$42/bbl in 2020, compared to US$64 in 2019, a loss of nearly US$23/bbl (-35%). Oil and gas account for 96% of Algeria's hydrocarbon and petrochemical exports.
Production and sales are expected to grow in 2021, thanks in particular to the start-up of production at the peripheral deposits of Gassi Touil and Hassi Bir Rekaiz, as well as the ramp-up of production at Tinrhert and the completion of the Hassi R'Mel Boosting for the Northern zone. The Algerian national hydrocarbon company Sonatrach intends to implement an investment plan of US$40bn over the next five years, including 51% in Algerian dinars (DZD), with the objective to ramp up production. The company will seek to meet the growing needs of the Algerian market, which is expected to reach 70 Mtoe from 2024, while maintaining a level of exports above 90 Mtoe/year, thanks to the production of new deposits in the South-West and South-East regions.