중국의 가스 생산량의 폭발적인 성장
가스 생산량은 석유에 비해 코로나19 대유행의 영향을 덜 받았고 2020년에는 2.5%의 감소폭만을 보였습니다.
세계 가스 생산량의 약 1/4을 차지하는 미국은 2020년에도 생산량을 유지했습니다(+0.1%). 가스 생산량은 중동(+1.2%), 호주(+7.9%), 중국(+9.8%)에서 증가세를 유지했습니다. 전체적으로 보면 아시아의 가스 생산량은 -0.9% 감소했는데, 그중 인도네시아에서 9.8%, 말레이시아에서 8.2% 하락했습니다. 세계 가스 생산량 감소는 대부분 남미(-8%)와 유럽(-7%)에서 발생했으며, 유럽 중 네덜란드는 -28%(흐로닝언 가스 생산량의 지속적인 감축), 노르웨이는 -2.4%의 감소세를 보였습니다. 또한 아프리카의 가스 생산량은 6% 감소했으며, 그중 알제리에서 -10%, 이집트에서 -6.8% 하락했습니다.
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).