이탈리아의 석유제품 소비 감소
크게 줄어든 경제 활동과 봉쇄 조치로 인해 석유제품의 세계적인 수요 성장률이 감소(-9%)했습니다.
세계 석유제품 소비량은 코로나19 대유행, 봉쇄 조치 및 교통 제한으로 인해 심각한 영향을 받았으며(-9%) 특히 선진 경제국의 피해가 컸습니다(OECD에서 -11%). 석유제품 소비량은 세계 최대 소비국인 미국에서 12% 감소했으며, 팬데믹으로 인해서 특히 교통 부문에서 수요가 위축된 것이 원인이었습니다. 일본(-8.3%) 이외에도 이탈리아와 스페인에서 -19%, 프랑스에서의 -14% 감소하여 유럽연합(-11%) 전체적으로도 석유제품 소비량이 감소했습니다. 석유제품 소비량은 인도(-10%)와 인도네시아(-4.4%)를 중심으로 아시아에서도 감소했으며(-2.7%), CIS(-3.2%), 남미(-11%, 멕시코와 콜롬비아의 -17% 포함), 중동(-7.2%) 및 아프리카(-11%)에서도 마찬가지였습니다.
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Iran exported 17 bcm of natural gas in the past year (March 2021-March 2022), according to the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC), including 7.3 bcm to Iraq (43%) and 3.3 bcm to Turkey (19%). Around 98% of cities and 85% of villages in the country are connected to the natural gas transmission network. In 2020, Iran exported 11.3 bcm of natural gas and Iraq sourced 100% of its natural gas imports from Iran, totalling 5.7 bcm in 2020.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) rose by 7.3% in 2021, due to higher emissions from the power sector, industry and aviation; however, they remain below their 2019 levels.
India's crude oil production declined by 2.7% in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (April 2021 to March 2022) to 29.7 Mt, in line with the recent decrease in oil production due to ageing fields. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) produced 19.45 Mt of crude oil (-3.6%). With the economic recovery, refineries processed 242 Mt of crude oil in the fiscal year 2021-2022 (+9%), producing 254 Mt of petroleum products (+8.9%). In addition, natural gas output rose by 18.7% to 34 bcm in the fiscal year 2021-2022.
US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (including LULUCF) declined by 11% in 2020 to 5,222 MtCO2eq, i.e., 21% below 2005 levels, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This was driven by an 11% decrease in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, primarily due to a 13% drop in transportation emissions driven by lower demand owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, power sector emissions also fell by 10%, reflecting both a slight decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic and a continued shift from coal to natural gas and renewables. In 2020, CO2 accounted for 79% of total emissions, followed by methane (11%), nitrous oxide (7%) and fluorinated gases (3%). Transport is the largest emitter sector (27%), followed by electricity (25%), industry (24%), commercial and residential (13%) and agriculture (11%).