미국 LNG 수출의 폭발적 증가
미국의 LNG 수출량은 신규 LNG 플랜트 가동으로 인해 2020년 1사분기까지 증가했습니다.
새로 추가된 LNG 생산량은 미국(+24%), 호주(9.7%) 그리고 소폭이지만 러시아(4.1%)의 LNG 수출량 증가에 기여했습니다. 아시아의 LNG 수입량은 2020년 4.4% 증가했는데, 일본과 한국의 경우 전력 부문에서 원자력 및 신재생에너지와의 경쟁으로 LNG 수입이 감소했으나(각각 -3.7% 및 -1.9%) 중국과 인도의 LNG 수입량 상승이 이를 보완해 주었습니다. 유럽연합은 LNG 수입이 7.6% 감소했다고 발표했으며, 그중 프랑스에서 -16%, 스페인에서 -6% 하락했는데 이는 신재생에너지 발전량 증가로 가스 화력 발전이 감소했기 때문입니다.
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China's installed wind and solar capacity increased by more than 101 GW in 2021, with the installation of 53 GW of solar and 47.6 GW of wind, including 16.9 GW of offshore wind, according to the country's National Energy Administration (NEA). China's offshore wind capacity stood at 26.4 GW at the end of 2021, ranking first in the world. At the end of 2020, the world's offshore wind capacity stood at 34.9 GW, with 10.4 GW in the United Kingdom, 9 GW in China and 7.7 GW in Germany.
China added 53 GW of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity in 2021, including 29 GW of distributed solar projects, according to the country's National Energy Administration (NEA). The country's total solar capacity reached 306 GW at the end of the year, with 107.5 GW of distributed solar (+29 GW in 2021, i.e., around 55% of all new solar PV capacity added in 2021). More than 40% (21.5 GW) of the total capacity corresponded to residential solar plants (compared to more than 10 GW added in 2020). In 2020, China had added more than 49 GW of solar capacity.
The combined production of fossil fuels (including natural gas, crude oil, and coal) in the United States increased by 2% in 2021, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). In 2021, natural gas accounted for 46% of US production of fossil fuels, followed by crude oil (30%), coal (15%) and NGPL (9%). The public agency forecasts that the country's output of fossil fuels will continue to rise in 2022 and 2023, surpassing the 2019 production level and reaching a new record in 2023. Indeed, natural gas production in the United States, which increased by 2% in 2021, will expand by 3% in 2022 and 2% in 2023. US crude oil production will increase by 6% in 2022 and 5% in 2023, after +1% in 2021. US coal production, which rose by 7% in 2021, will grow by 6% in 2022 and 1% in 2023. Finally, natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production increased by 4% in 2021 and will rise by 9% in 2022 and 4% in 2023.
According to Trade Statistics of Japan, Japanese LNG imports declined by 0.2% in 2021 to 74 Mt. In 2020, Japan was the world's largest LNG importer, accounting for around 20% of global imports. However, LNG imports have been declining since 2017 and are now estimated to be lower than China's LNG imports, that grew by nearly 19% in 2021 according to preliminary statistics, making China the largest LNG importer worldwide in 2021.